An overview of state-of-the-art image restoration in electron microscopy


In Life Science research, electron microscopy (EM) is an essential tool for morphological analysis at the subcellular level as it allows for visualization at nanometer resolution. However, electron micrographs contain image degradations such as noise and blur caused by electromagnetic interference, electron counting errors, magnetic lens imperfections, electron diffraction, etc. These imperfections in raw image quality are inevitable and hamper subsequent image analysis and visualization. In an effort to mitigate these artefacts, many electron microscopy image restoration algorithms have been proposed in the last years. Most of these methods rely on generic assumptions on the image or degradations and are therefore outperformed by advanced methods that are based on more accurate models. Ideally, a method will accurately model the specific degradations that fit the physical acquisition settings. In this overview paper, we discuss different electron microscopy image degradation solutions and demonstrate that dedicated artefact regularisation results in higher quality restoration and is applicable through recently developed probabilistic methods.